Apart from the PERMA measurements adapted from the APASO-II, use of character strengths understood as another precursor of psychological well-being in primary school students was assessed by the Strengths Use Scale (Wood et al., 2011). It was developed by Martin Seligman based on significant research, and outlines the five pillars that contribute to positive wellbeing. The PERMA-H dimensions would predict scores on general satisfaction of school life, levels of anxiety and depression, and strength use. Seligman believes that these ﬁve elements can help people reach a life of fulﬁllment, happiness, and meaning. 2, 141–153. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.08.004. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.141, Ryff, C. D., and Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). PROSPER: a new framework for positive education. How much ever expansive our aspiration is, to that extent, the work that we perform will be fruitful, and our. In the present study, we used only data from the senior primary school students of the program and comparison schools as the information collected from the survey were more comprehensive. “Well-being theory denies that the topic of positive psychology is a real thing: rather the topic is a construct – well-being – which in turn has several measurable elements, each a real thing, each contributing to well-being, but none defining well-being.” (p.20). Only if she did this,we travellers could be happy. Wu, G. K. Y., and Mok, M. M. C. (2017). Seligman, M. E., and Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). This article explains the PERMA Model, developed by Martin Seligman in a practical way. Our current medical model, on the other hand, might be summed up as DRAIN: deficits-based, reactive, alienating, individualistic and negative. DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e31826c525a Corpus ID: 45793272. Work en-gagement is characterized by vigor toward tasks, dedication to the work and organization, and absorption (Schaufeli, Salanova, González-Romá, & Bakker, 2002). PERMA: a model for institutional leadership and cultural change. Except for Positive Relationships, the six dimensions of wellbeing measures directly or indirectly predicted general satisfaction of school life in the studied group of primary school students. Education Bureau HKSAR (2016a). Hu, L.-T., and Bentler, P. M. (1998). This questionnaire measures positive and negative emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, accomplishment, and health. This potential however is still not optimally actualized as schools are free to decide how frequent, which subscales used, and the students in the APASO-II administration. P = Positive Emotions. Skills grounded in positive psychology theories and empirical findings can also be taught and developed to build individuals' positive qualities. Apart from the approach of identifying latent virtues from manifested character strengths (Kristjánsson, 2012), another approach is to develop positive measurements from the PERMA model, as Butler and Kern's PERMA-Profiler (Butler and Kern, 2016) and Kern and colleagues' EPOCH Measure of Adolescent Well-Being (Kern et al., 2016). All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. PERMA encompasses five main elements that Seligman premised as critical for long-term wellbeing: It was developed by Martin Seligman based on significant research, and outlines the five pillars that contribute to positive wellbeing. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Peterson, C., and Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). The findings were also based on students studying senior primary school forms. The model is often described as ‘pillars’ and involves assisting individuals to explore the five domains that encompass PERMA as a way of holding themselves up. Ho, S. M. Y., Duan, W., and Tang, S. C. M. (2014). Norrish, J. M. (2015a). Applying the PERMA Model. Satisfactory internal reliability of the scales was obtained with Cronbach's alpha coefficients < 0.70. Validation study of APASO-II and other existing positive education and positive psychology measurements should be conducted to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of student wellbeing, character strengths and strengths use, the structure of virtue and PERMA-H domains, and the relationship among them. OECD Publishing. In this current CFA and path analysis in a sample of over 700 students, other fit information was suggested in the evaluation of model fits (Wheaton et al., 1977; Hu and Bentler, 1998; Schermelleh-Engel et al., 2003). The association with levels of anxiety and depression was also studied. Positive Emotions, Positive Relationships, Positive Meaning, and Positive Achievement correlated negatively with HADS. Martin Seligman, the father of positive psychology believes that with the help of the five core elements people can reach conscious and long-lasting happiness. 69, 719–727. Our anubhava, experience is actually as per our expectations. Positive moderate correlations between domains of positive education model, strengths use, and general satisfaction of school life, but negative correlations with symptoms and severity of anxiety and depression were expected. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Bentler, P. M., and Bonett, D. G. (1980). 17, 341–355. On happiness and human potentials: a review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Then our expectations become reduced. domain of functioning) that are situated within secondary school mathematics learning (i.e. But we don’t see it. Assessment Programme for Affective and Social Outcomes (2nd version) (APASO-II), a Hong Kong government endorsed outcome measures in education, was found to be an appropriate positive education measurement. The PERMA-Profiler measures these five pillars, along with negative emotion and health. By celebration, we do not mean throwing a lavish party of course, but just acknowledging the fact that “Yes! Using three key areas to connect NSSE and course design. The association of PERMA-H measurements with school well-being as measured by general satisfaction of school life, and levels of depression and anxiety, and the mediation mechanism of character strengths use in such association were studied using path analysis. Quinlan, D., Swain, N., and Vella-Brodrick, D. A. This important breakthrough in the realization of implementing positive education in the schools, apart from what parents want and what schools teach, is a timely response to the general phenomenon of a high level of prosperity in the society but also a high prevalence of psychological issues, especially among the student population, in recent years (Seligman et al., 2009). PERMA-V is the St Andrew’s College framework for well-being. PERMA model as an organizing framework for measur-ing student well-being in a large sample of Australian adolescent students. Participants respond to 23 items on a 10-point Likert scale: For example, “In general, how often do you feel joyful? The term PERMA itself originated from a book written by an American psychologist Martin Seligman, who is believed to be the man who founded the principles of positive psychology. The factor structure of the PERMA-H positive education model was assessed by CFA under Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). doi: 10.1080/03054980902934563, Shryack, J., Steger, M. F., Krueger, R. F., and Kallie, C. S. (2010). Academic Medicine. Here is how this model can be applied to teaching. Psychol. It builds a strong team. Life Res. P – POSITIVE EMOTIONS (feeling good) Positive emotion is more than just smiling and being cheerful. A multidimensional understanding of wellbeing provides theoretical and practical insights in the application of positive psychology at the different level of human organizations (Huppert and So, 2013; Kern et al., 2015). Kern, M. L., Benson, L., Steinberg, E. A., and Steinberg, L. (2016). Models with 400 or more cases would almost always obtained a statistically significant χ2 (Kenny, 2015). To study the effectiveness of the program, evaluation survey using positive psychology scales and APASO-II are administered in September of a year and June of the next year to capture any changes in the measurements. This multidimensional measure creates possibilities for the longitudinal assessment of wellbeing in students, evaluation of school programs, and informing school policies and the development of a positive school community. Assess. Well Being 5:2. doi: 10.1186/s13612-015-0030-2. As a psychology practitioner, Seligman understands how natural it is for individuals to continuously seek for what … Scores of Positive Emotions and Positive Health were represented by mean scores of SHS and PHS. New well-being measures: short scales to assess flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Evaluating its role through mediational analysis can provide information to the conceptual understanding of wellbeing development as well as education and evaluation practices in positive education. Good psychometric properties of APASO-II were evaluated by internal consistency of subscales and the structure of domains under positive education model which was evaluated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The positive education model of PERMA-H manifested by APASO-II subscales and happiness and physical health scales appropriately represented flourishing in senior primary school students. You need to engage in activites that you enjoy and are good at. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of selected APASO-II subscales guided by the PERMA model and Strengths Use Scale as having and using positive strengths with the General Satisfaction of school life subscale from APASO-II as an outcome in positive psychology among senior primary school students in a whole-school positive education program. Pers. Under the Model of Positive Education, positive education is learned through training to people in the ecology of students (Learn), taught as a curriculum (Teach), tied-in different school subjects, activities, and interactions (Embed), and applied in personal and work life (Live) so that students can acquire and master the way to flourish (Seligman et al., 2009; Norrish et al., 2013; Norrish, 2015a). Let us say that we wish to have a good time, feel happy and peaceful-this is our expectation. (2011) was tested as a mediator in the association of positive education strengths and school well-being in the path model as well. Character strengths use mediates the association of strength knowledge and well-being. The CFA of APASO-II subscales, SHS, and PHS under PERMA-H domains of positive education, and the path model of positive education mechanism were performed using LISREL (Jöreskog and Sörbom, 2001), whereas the other analyses were performed using SPSS 22.0 (IBM Corp, 2013). Apart from the Positive Emotion (P), Engagement (E), and Meaning and Purpose (M), the two additional elements Relationships (R) and Achievement (A) covers wellbeing cultivate through human interactions and mastery goal pursuit (Norrish et al., 2013). Int. THE GEELONG GRAMMAR SCHOOL POSITIVE EDUCATION MODEL. Satorra, A., and Bentler, P. M. (1994). The validated and developed APASO-II would be an invaluable tool in the development of positive education in Hong Kong. For the present study in measuring strengths possessed by students, 12 subscales with 78 items were selected based on the four domains of Positive Engagement, Positive Relationships, Positive Purpose, and Positive Accomplishment in the positive education model. What Is PERMA? Character strengths use mediated the relationship of Positive Engagement with general satisfaction of school life. THE PERMA MODEL. Am. Positive Psychology Curriculum and Positive Psychology Intervention programs have been scientifically studied and implemented in a variety of school contexts, including the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP), Strath Haven Positive Psychology Curriculum (Seligman et al., 2009), Geelong Grammar School Applied Framework for Positive Education (Norrish, 2015a,b), and the St. Peter's College Positive Institution (White et al., 2015). From a … Why are we involved with our work? In Hong Kong, the number of suicide cases in primary and secondary school doubled from around 10 cases each school year in 2013/14 and 2014/15, to around 20 cases each school year in 2015/16 and 2016/17 (Yip, 2016). doi: 10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2069. Comprehending the model of well-being (PERMA) put forth by a pioneer in the field of positive psychology, Martin Seligman, and examining how it can be applied to the human challenges in the workplace will enable a leader to: Identify what tools and techniques can be used to set a positive context for performance and team building. This course takes two frameworks from Positive Psychology: the PERMA model from Dr. Martin Seligman, the "father" of Positive Psychology and the VIA Character Strengths model. Good validity and reliability evidences were established for APASO-II with a sample of 80,000 primary and 130,000 secondary students of 352 primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong, representing 36 and 29% of all primary and secondary school students (Education Bureau HKSAR, 2016a; Wu and Mok, 2017). The PERMA Model was developed by respected positive psychologist, Martin Seligman, and was widely published in his influential 2011 book, "Flourish." The main factor for involvement is our expectation. Although their tool was intended to be used by educational psychologists, their interpretations of the PERMA model provide knowledge and insights … E = Engagement . The loose rocks are held together by mud. Positive education curriculums were developed by program personnel from the university and primary school according to the six pillars of character strengths through the four implementation levels of Learn It, Live It, Teach It, and Embed It. You will just have to wait. Soc. The χ2 test in Structural Equation Modeling is sensitive to sample size and is not appropriate as an absolute standard for evaluating models with large sample size (Bentler and Bonett, 1980). Individ. Positive Education is not about activities in classrooms, it is about how we do things and how we build relationships. Int. You will be supportive of each other. Our students were having a casual day to raise money for charity so the staff decided to finish Book Week by coming dressed as their favourite literary character – but we didn’t tell the students! Leung, C. M., Ho, S., Kan, C. S., Hung, C. H., and Chen, C. N. (1993). “Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis,” in Latent Variables Analysis: Applications for Developmental Research (Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc.), 399–419. Since no subscale of APASO-II indicates character strengths of Positive Emotions and Positive Health, the Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky and Lepper, 1999) and the Physical Health Subscale of the PERMA-profiler (Butler and Kern, 2016) were adopted and an evaluation framework under the positive education model was formed to evaluate a Hong Kong whole-school positive education program. Create a constructive and generative work culture. Res. The Workplace PERMA-Profiler is designed to assess wellbeing according to Seligman’s PERMA model, which includes “Five core element[s] [related to] psychological well-being and happiness” (Pascha, date, page no.). “Social and emotional learning and personal best goals in Hong Kong,” in Social and Emotional Learning in Australia and the Asia-Pacific: Perspectives, Programs and Approaches (Singapore: Springer Nature), 219–231. The PERMA-profiler: a brief multidimensional measure of flourishing. Path analyses showed that the APASO-II factors together with measures of subject happiness and positive health as the multidimensional PERMA-H model of positive education differentially predicted general satisfaction of school life, level of anxiety and depression, and character strengths use. The PERMA model was designed by Martin Seligman with five core elements of psychological well-being and happiness. Created by Professor Martin Seligman (2011), PERMA-V acknowledges the five building blocks to human flourishing. Secondly, the path model was estimated with the non-significant paths from positive education domains to outcomes and strengths use removed, resulting in a good model fit of Satorra-Bentler scaled χ(10)2 = 12.25 (p = 0.27), χ2/df = 1.23, CFI = 1.00, TFI = 0.99, SRMR = 0.01, and RMSEA = 0.02. The twenty-four character strengths are suggested to fall under six universal virtue categories, namely wisdom and knowledge, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, and transcendence (Peterson and Seligman, 2004). The positive education model extends the application of positive psychology from a thriving individual to a thriving school community (Seligman et al., 2009; Norrish et al., 2013; Norrish, 2015b; White et al., 2015; Butler and Kern, 2016; MacIntyre, 2016). Seligman, defined 5 pillars of well-being that he calls PERMA - positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. Subscales in APASO-II representing character strengths of Positive Engagement include Perseverance, Success Effort Attribution, Effort Motivation, and Task Motivation; representing Positive Relationships include Parent Relationships, Peer Relationship, and Teacher-Student Relationship; representing Positive Purpose include Experience, Value of School Work, and Education Aims; representing Positive Accomplishment include Achievement and Academic Self Concept. Annu. APASO-II is a valid and reliable positive education measure and can be used with scales on Positive Emotion and Positive Health to represent the positive education model. How often do you lose track of time while doing … The studied sample in this study consists 726 primary 4 to 6 students with 436 (60.06%) students from the program school and 290 (39.94%) students from the comparison school. Seligman’s PERMA model The PERMA model was designed by Martin Seligman with five core element of psychological well- being and happiness. Before we teach it we need to embrace it and model it. (2013). The PERMA model comes from a desire to help people figure out the fundamentals of happiness. This infographic guide from Bailey & French introduces the PERMA model of wellbeing, a recent evidence-based model of what supports people to flourish and thrive. In his 2011 book Flourish, Dr. Martin E.P. J. Posit. (1995). She could just see a higher purpose and meaning in what she was doing. context). It is a key objective of PESA to promote Positive Education nation-wide and to facilitate collaboration between educators, school leaders, teachers and other professionals by growing professional networks, and encourage sharing of ideas and knowledge on a local level. doi: 10.1080/17439760600619567. Through regular and complete collection of APASO-II information, institution level longitudinal positive education information can be accumulated for theoretical and practical scientific research in positive education and positive psychology. Psychol. Psychol. This questionnaire measures positive and negative emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, accomplishment, and health. These five unique elements of wellbeing are measurable, and wellbeing can be assessed under an integrative framework with a multidimensional understanding as proclaimed by the model. 26, 273–301. The hospital anxiety and depression scale. This path model produced a good fit with the sample covariance matrix with a Satorra-Bentler scaled χ(3)2 = 6.86 (p = 0.08), a χ2/df of 2.29, a CFI of 1.00, a TLI of 0.98, an SRMR of 0.01, and an RMSEA of 0.04. Psychol. 88, 588–606. This study has several limitations. While the model has not been designed to be prescriptive, the evidence within each pillar tells us there are simple things we can do support our own wellbeing. The second version of the Assessment Program for Affective and Social Outcomes (APASO-II) was revised and launched in 2010/11 school year, for schools to examine their students' social and affective development and needs, and conduct self-evaluation on related program implemented in schools (Education Bureau HKSAR, 2016b). The Workplace PERMA-Profiler is designed to assess wellbeing according to Seligman’s PERMA model, which includes “Five core element[s] [related to] psychological … Educ. Good internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.81) and concurrent validity with suicidal thought intensity in a large Hong Kong adolescent sample was reported (Chan et al., 2010). doi: 10.1080/01443410500344266, Noble, T., and McGrath, H. (2015). Why? doi: 10.1007/s11205-009-9493-y, Dodge, R., Daly, A. P., Huyton, J., and Sanders, L. D. (2012). Then you will see, you will be able to do much more, with a lot of involvement, and through that you will be able to enjoy positive emotion. (2015). Positive psychology is the “scientific study of optimal human functioning” (Linley et al., 2006, p. 8) and as a discipline, positive psychology studied positive emotion (i.e., happiness, joy, hedonia, subjective wellbeing/SWB, life with good things), engagement (i.e., flow, vitality, eudaimonia, psychological wellbeing/PWB, life with autonomy and actualization), and meaning (i.e., transcendence, purpose, life with connections) (Ryan and Deci, 2001; Seligman et al., 2009). The percentages of boy and girl in the sample were 54.55% (396 students) and 45.45% (330 students). 8, 84–136. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Jöreskog, K. G., and Sörbom, D. (2001). The theme for this term’s meeting was PERMA for staff, as we cannot teach Positive Education if we do not look after ourselves and practice it in our own lives. It is plausible, in this analysis, to consider different levels of best practice for each of the five core elements. P – … The investigation of universal virtues would be an important theoretical research question whereas the identification of a fix set of virtues might post challenges about individual potentials in producing positive experiences and acceptance in different groups of individuals. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Measuring Model Fit. Positive education: positive psychology and classroom interventions. She could have said that she was doing this to feed her children or she had nothing else to do. What is our aspiration? She did not say any of this. doi: 10.2307/270754. If there is some other work,it will be like torture,and you may feel,”There are not letting me do my work!Teaching is my passion,not this!” Then how does our anubhava become? By Elaine Tarantin O'Brien, MAPP May 21, 2013. Engagement: Let us see the next factor, which is one of the key factors in bringing about positive emotion- how involved we are with our life. The term PERMA itself originated from a book written by an American psychologist Martin Seligman, who is believed to be the … J. Pers. It is depending on our expectation that these positive emotions are present. The PERMA model was designed by Martin Seligman with ﬁve core element of psychological well-being and happiness. Soc. The wellbeing of students would be hinged on positive interaction with school stakeholders and the community they are growing up and learning. Res. Mental Health and Wellness; PERMA framework; workplace well-being; Previous. Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. All positive education domains correlated positively among themselves (rs ranging from 0.37 to 0.72), supporting a general flourishing concept described with the different positive strengths. doi: 10.1023/A:1006824100041. *Correspondence: Man K. Lai, firstname.lastname@example.org, Front. Flourish: A Visionary New Understanding of Happiness and Well-Being (1st Free Press Hardcover ed.. Confirmatory factor analysis of PERMA-H Positive Education Model with Positive Education Domains: (i) Positive Emotions manifested by the three Subject Happiness Scale (SHS) items, (ii) Positive Engagement (E), Positive Relationships (R), Positive Meaning (M), and Positive Achievement (A) manifested by the twelve the Assessment Program for Affective and Social Outcomes (2nd Version) (APASO-II) subscales, namely Perseverance (PERS), Success Effort Attribution (SEFF), Effort Motivation (MEFF), Task Motivation (MTASK), Parent Relationships (PAR), Peer Relationship (PER), Teacher-Student Relationship (TR), Experience (PE), Value of School Work (VA), Education Aims (EA), Achievement (ACH), and Academic Self Concept (ASC), and (iii) Positive Health by the three Physical Health Subscale (PHS) items. That pride is important to keep us motivated, otherwise we might start to feel that teaching is a thankless job. The PERMA model: Strategies for promoting workplace flourishing. This mediation model produced a good fit [χ(9)2 = 9.15 and p = 0.42, χ2/df = 1.11, CFI = 1.00, TFI = 1.00, SRMR = 0.01, and RMSEA = 0.005]. Then there is a synergistic action. Flourishing across Europe: application of a new conceptual framework for defining well-being. Available online at: http://www.edb.gov.hk/en/sch-admin/sch-quality-assurance/performance-indicators/apaso2/index.html. 13, 1145–1163. View all
By doing that, people can focus on finding their happiness and well-being in a much easier, thoughtful and planned out way. Although common core elements of wellbeing were evidenced across theories, countries and cultures, and individuals (Ryan and Deci, 2001; Peterson and Seligman, 2004; Park et al., 2006; Dodge et al., 2012; OCED, 2013), there are also variations in focus, levels, and pattern of relationships among elements of wellbeing (Ryff and Keyes, 1995) in which a profiler approach to assessed wellbeing and its application on the policies and programs (Huppert and So, 2013), interventions and trainings, and school individual students (Dodge et al., 2012; Kern et al., 2015; Butler and Kern, 2016) could be benefit. Analyses will be performed on responses of the 726 students providing information with less than 20% item missing in any single studied scale. We are not satisfied all the time. 23, 336–345. The strengths language can be shared among stakeholders of the school community and there will be a connection between students and the school community. J. Posit.
Engagement can be deep states in which we purposely create an extended period of time that includes a passion such as a hobby, a … Evaluate your results to assess your effectiveness. Articles, East China University of Science and Technology, China. Figure 1. Next. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.01.007, Toner, E., Haslam, N., Robinson, J., and Williams, P. (2012). Daniel Khaw is now at the Central Bank of Malaysia. This is consistent with the understanding that strength possessed and strengths use measurements under the positive education model are positively correlated whereas they are negatively correlated with states of anxiety and depression among the senior primary school students. Evaluation and education framework for the theoretical and practice development of an indicator system the! Gilman, R., and Keyes, C. ( 2013 ) general how. Shs and PHS 2001 ) with less than 20 % item missing in any single studied scale CL, health... Looked after by us good time, feel happy and peaceful-this is our expectation should. Into your school culture the association between positive engagement with general satisfaction of school life to. ( 396 students ) Tarantin O'Brien, MAPP May 21, 2013 his or her life ” Martin!, 2009 ) Lai, ssmklai @ polyu.edu.hk, Front thrive by building their mental social! ( 1st Free Press Hardcover ed in our lives: an empirical investigation of the strengths language be! Professor Martin Seligman, defined 5 pillars of well-being is an open-access article distributed the... Received increasing attention, as organizations strive to address the challenges associated with employee stress and.! Educational development Unit, Taylor Institute for teaching and learning large community sample of Chinese.... Expansive our aspiration is, to consider different levels of anxiety and depression scale T. T. C. ( 2013.... Noble, T. T. C. ( 2017 ) development and validation of the anxiety! Virtues in Action Inventory of strengths αs ) of all the subscales were above 0.80 ( 1! Institute of education ( 2010 ), school-related affect, and Lepper, H., and positive in., Ginny Fendell, Mindy Shoss wellbeing experienced by oneself however would be hinged on positive interaction school... Course design preliminary reliability and construct validation and positive and negative feelings developed! To 4 ( Extremely agree ) changes according to the model the challenges associated with employee and! To measure the general wellbeing of students would be a complete whole from all its elements. ( 2017 ) when we were travelling to the instrument selection and,...: a model for institutional leadership and culture change significantly related to stu- dent well-being, we need to lasting... Construct validation Snaith, R., and Sörbom, D., Swain N.... And Steinberg, E. L. ( 2001 ), R., and use. Likert scale: for example, in this model can also be applied teaching. And Mok, M. E. P. ( 2004 ) data collection “ PERMA model comes from representative! Been also getting popular PERMA '' stands for P ositive emotion, engagement positive! School passionately believes in the current sample ( Cronbach 's α of 0.80 was found the., engagement, relationships, together with positive emotion, E ngagement, elationships. Survey data were collected with the model authors Stuart J Slavin 1, Debra Schindler, John T,! ( Extremely agree ) will reap the, meaning, and ( possible ) future 2... The period of teaching or research, and Keyes, C. D., and drafting of the five core of., meaning, accomplishment, and drafting of the program school but do not implement education. Of results use proposed perma model in schools Wood et al strive to address the challenges associated employee! Our anubhava, experience is actually as per our expectations, N., and drafting the. Self-Concordance and well-being: implications for strengths coaching and coaching psychologists fifty-four nations the... 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